Below are scales/measures developed with international students or to study cross-national related topics:

Cross-Cultural Loss Scale (CCLS; Wang, Wei, Zhao, Chuang, & Li, 2014)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 14 items
  • 3 subscales (Loss of Belonging-Competency, Loss of Access to Home Familiarity, andLoss of National Privileges)

International Friendly Campus Scale (IFCS; Wang, Li, Wang, Hunt, Yan, & Currey, 2014)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 18 items
  • 5 subscales (International Center Services, Social Engagement, Academic Support, Identification with Institution, and Campus Discrimination)

Acculturative Stress Scale for International Students (ASSIS; Sandhu & Asrabadi, 1994)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 36 items
  • 7 dimensions (Perceived Discrimination, Homesickness, Perceived Hate, Fear, Stress Due To Change/Cultural Shock, Guilt, and Miscellaneous)

Sociocultural Adaptation Scale (SCAS; Ward & Kennedy, 1999)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 41 items
  • 2 factors (Cultural Empathy and Relatedness &  Impersonal Endeavors and Perils)

Perceived Language Discrimination Scale (PLD; Wei, Wang, & Ku, 2012)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 7 items
  • single dimension

Post-migration Growth Scale (PMGS; Pan, Won g, & Ye, 2013)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 14 items
  • 2 factors (Interpersonal Growth & Intrapersonal Growth)

Social Connectedness in Mainstream Society and Ethnic Community Scales (SCMN & SCETH; Yoon, Jung, Lee, & Felix-Mora, 2012)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 10 items
  • 2 subscales (Social Connectedness in Mainstream Society & Social Connectedness in the Ethnic Community)

Measurement of Culture Shock (CS; Memford, 1998)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 12 items
  • 2 factors (Culture Shock & Interpersonal Stress)

Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS; Ang, Van Dyne, Koh, Ng, Templer, Tay, & Chandrasekar, 2007)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 20 items
  • 4 factors (Strategy, Knowledge, Motivation, & Behavior)

Wong and Law’s Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS; Wang, Kim, & Ng, 2012)pdf_icon_transparent

  • 16 items
  • 4 constructs (Self-emotion Appraisal, Others’ Emotion Appraisal, Use of Emotion, & Regulation of Emotion)


Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K. Y., Tay, C. et al. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation, and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3, 335-371. doi:10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00082.x

Mumford, D. B. (1998). The measurement of culture shock. Social Psychiatry33, 149-154. doi:10.1007/s001270050037

Pan, J., Wong, D. F. K., & Ye, S. (2013). Post-migration Growth Scale for Chinese international students: Development and validation. Journal of Happiness Studies14, 1639-1655. doi:10.1007/s10902-012-9401-z

Sandhu, D. S., & Asrabadi, B. R. (1994). Development of an acculturative stress scale for international students: Preliminary findings. Psychological Reports75, 435-448. doi:10.2466/pr0.1994.75.1.435

Wang, C., Kim, D., & Ng, K. (2012). Factorial and item-level invariance of an emotional intelligence scale across groups of international students. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment30, 160-170. doi:10.1177/0734282911412543

Wang, K. T., Li, F., Wang, Y., Hunt, E. N., Yan, G. C., & Currey, D. E. (2014). The International Friendly Campus Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 42, 118-128. doi:10.1016/j.ijintrel.2014.05.004

Wang, K. T., Wei, M., Zhao, R., Chuang, C. C., & Li, F. (2014). The Cross-Cultural Loss Scale: Development and psychometric evaluation. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. doi:10.1037/pas0000027

Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1999). The measurement of sociocultural adaptation. International Journal Of Intercultural Relations23, 659-677. doi:10.1016/S0147-1767(99)00014-0

Wei, M., Wang, K. T., & Ku, T. (2012). A development and validation of the Perceived Language Discrimination Scale. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology18, 340-351. doi:10.1037/a0029453

Yoon, E., Jung, K., Lee, R. M., & Felix-Mora, M. (2012). Validation of Social Connectedness in Mainstream Society and the Ethnic Community Scales. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology18, 64-73. doi:10.1037/a0026600

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