What are effective interventions for IS?

The cultural formulation approach is an organizing framework for career counselors to consider cultural influences on their clients‚ career issues, related interventions, and the working alliance (Arthur & Popadiuk, 2010). One study found that expressive writing and assertiveness training can also help to cope with differences in interpersonal relationship building styles across cultures (Hijazi, Tavakoli, Slavin-Spenny, & Lumley, 2011). Group assertiveness training was rated more positively than expressive writing by students (Tavakoli, Lumley, Hijazi, Slavin-Spenny, & Parris, 2009). Seminars at the beginning of IS programs (Andrade, 2008) and peer support groups (Carr, Koyama, & Thiagarajan, 2003) can also be beneficial.

How are IS with seeking help?

Culture can play a crucial role in when and how an individual seeks help. In general, international students are less likely to exhibit help-seeking behavior. One study indicated that only about 2% of the international student body sought counseling services from the counseling center that year and that about a third dropped out after the initial intake session (Nilsson, Berkel, Flores, & Lucas, 2004). One study found that students with more traditional Asian values reported less positive counseling attitudes and lower help-seeking intentions (Yakunina & Weigold, 2011). Another study found that Asian students had less favorable attitudes toward seeking help online than toward seeking help by traditional face-to-face means (Chang & Chang, 2004). Compared with the general student population, fewer international students seek nursing intervention or medical attention for common illnesses and ailments (Collins, 2001).

Group Difference

Results from different research studies suggest that diverse populations of international students tend to exhibit different characteristics that may influence international student interventions. Results indicate that being female, having greater openness to emotions, and having had prior counseling experience were significant predictors of more open attitudes toward seeking counseling (Komiya & Eells, 2001). Japanese students tend to have greater stigma toward individuals with psychological disorders (Masuda, Hayes, Twohig, Lillis, Fletcher, & Gloster, 2009).

Reasons to seek for help

One study showed that most of the international students who sought counseling presented with concerns about depression, assertiveness, academic major, and anxiety (Nilsson, Berkel, Flores, & Lucas, 2004)

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